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Munich was first mentioned in In , during the German Revolution , the ruling house of Wittelsbach , which had governed Bavaria since , was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared.
The first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire.
After the end of postwar American occupation in , there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder , or "economic miracle".
Unlike many other German cities which were heavily bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the Summer Olympics.
The s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, and population growth. Munich is home to many universities, museums and theatres.
Its numerous architectural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism.
It is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location. Munich hosts more than , people of foreign background, making up The first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road.
The foundation date is considered the year , the date the city was first mentioned in a document. The document was signed in Augsburg. In , Munich received city status and fortification.
In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: When Bavaria was reunited in , Munich became its capital.
During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation , and also of renaissance arts. The Catholic League was founded in Munich in When the bubonic plague broke out in and , about one third of the population died.
Under the regency of the Bavarian electors, Munich was an important centre of baroque life, but also had to suffer under Habsburg occupations in and Twenty years later, Landshut University was moved to Munich.
On the other hand, Ludwig II , known the world over as the fairytale king, was mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside.
Nevertheless, his patronage of Richard Wagner secured his posthumous reputation, as do his castles, which still generate significant tourist income for Bavaria.
Following the outbreak of World War I in , life in Munich became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany led to food and fuel shortages.
During French air raids in , three bombs fell on Munich. After World War I, the city was at the centre of substantial political unrest.
When Communists took power, Lenin , who had lived in Munich some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was ended on 3 May by the Freikorps.
While the republican government had been restored, Munich became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists soon rose to prominence.
In , Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch , an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power.
The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau , 16 kilometres 9.
Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung "Capital of the Movement". The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement by Britain and France leading up to World War II.
Munich was the base of the White Rose , a student resistance movement from June to February The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.
The city was heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II by 71 air raids over five years. After US occupation in , Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid.
The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt "secret capital" in the decades after World War II.
Munich was the site of the Summer Olympics , during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian fedayeen in the Munich massacre , when gunmen from the Palestinian " Black September " group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.
Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide — a survey ranked Munich as 4th.
Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.
For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown"  among the English-speaking residents.
German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people". Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland.
The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills.
Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich.
The city center lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate. The warmest month, on average, is July.
The coolest is January. Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer.
The most precipitation occurs in June, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany.
Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps.
From only 24, inhabitants in , the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was , in , , in and , in In , , inhabitants were counted, and in over 1 million.
In July , Munich had 1. The largest foreign resident groups by As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership.
As of 31 December , There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city.
Munich has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since This is atypical because Bavaria — and particularly southern Bavaria — has long been identified with conservative politics, with the Christian Social Union gaining absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament , the Staatskanzlei the State Chancellery and of all state departments.
Since the administrative reform in , Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke , which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters.
The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built.
Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive — the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city.
The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus , a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast Palace of Justice and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city.
Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche The Church of the Holy Spirit was converted to baroque style from onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt , the most popular market of Munich.
The Frauenkirche is the best known building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture.
Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam , pioneering artists of the rococo period.
Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof , a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.
Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved and in parts excellently reconstructed townhouses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes.
Anna im Lehel is the first rococo church in Bavaria. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich. Louis church , the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces.
The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture.
The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus , the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology.
After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum , which houses the state parliament. The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.
The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim Schleissheim Palace , located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim , a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries.
The Bavaria statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese.
St Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf.
Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps.
Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums as described below.
Munich is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks. The Englischer Garten , close to the city centre and covering an area of 3.
It contains a naturist nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach , which get crowded in summer.
In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.
Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten , founded in for deer, which still live there. Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad , the largest waterpark in Munich.
Other notable clubs include Munich , who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3. Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching.
Munich bid to host the Winter Olympic Games , but lost to Pyeongchang. Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools  and eight outdoor swimming pools,  which are operated by the Munich City Utilities SWM communal company.
The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world.
Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum , which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum.
The city has several important art galleries , most of which can be found in the Kunstareal , including the Alte Pinakothek , the Neue Pinakothek , the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst.
The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries.
The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors.
Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum. The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.
Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings.
Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso , W.
The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra.
Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater.
In the s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there.
In the late s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here.
Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz.
This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre Residenztheater , the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world.
The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world around publishing houses have offices in the city , and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz.
At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing , was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany.
Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there.
Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.
The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: Between and , he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany".
Fear Eats the Soul. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the s.
Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. Three weeks before Christmas, the Christkindlmarkt opens at Marienplatz and other squares in the city, selling Christmas goods.
For two weeks, the Oktoberfest attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents "Bierzelte" and fairground attractions.
The Oktoberfest was first held on 12 October in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest.
Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October Tag der deutschen Einheit , i.
The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon — a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators — these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.
It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste.
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Lakes in and around Munich Beautiful lakes and rivers outside and within the city limit. Munich Christmas Market The oldest Christmas market, in the heart of the city.
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This listing of hotels will help. Tourist Information Brochures and flyers Printable information for guests.