Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'chieftain' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung für 'chieftain' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „chieftain “ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: chieftain.
There were bands in Canada in The offices and traditional realms of the chiefs of Ghana are constitutionally protected by the republican constitution of the country.
The chiefs serve as custodians of all traditional lands and the cultures of the traditional areas. They also serve as members of the Ghanaian National House of Chiefs.
The Solomon Islands have a Local Court Act which empowers chiefs to deal with crimes in their communities, thus assuring them of considerable effective authority.
His position is recognized by the Filipino government. The pre-colonial states that existed in what is today Uganda were summarily abolished following independence from Great Britain.
However, following constitutional reforms in , a number of them were restored as politically neutral constituencies of the state by the government of Yoweri Museveni.
Generally, a tribe or nation is considered to be part of an ethnic group , usually sharing cultural values. For example, the forest-dwelling Chippewa historically built dwellings from the bark of trees, as opposed to the Great Plains -dwelling tribes, who would not have access to trees, except by trade, for example for lodgepoles.
Thus, the tribes of the Great Plains might typically dwell in skin-covered tipis rather than bark lodges. But some Plains tribes built their lodges of earth, as for example the Pawnee.
A chief might be considered to hold all political power, say by oratory or by example. But on the North American continent, it was historically possible to evade the political power of another by migration.
The Mingos , for example, were Iroquois who migrated further west to the sparsely populated Ohio Country during the 18th century.
The tribes were pacified by units of the United States Army in the nineteenth century, and were also subject to forced schooling in the decades afterward.
Because formal education is now respected, some like Peter MacDonald , a Navajo, left their jobs in the mainstream U.
Also, though the fount of power might be the chief, he or she is typically not free to wield power without the consent of a council of elders of some kind.
Cherokee men were not permitted to go to war without the consent of the council of women. Tribal government is an official form of government in the United States,  as it is in a number of countries around the world.
Be that as it may, the territory of these tribes fell under the authority of the Bureau of Indian Affairs as reservations held in trust for the tribes.
Citizenship was formerly considered a tribal matter. For example, it was not until that the Pueblo people were granted U. Mainstream Americans often find pride and comfort in realizing that at least part of their ethnic ancestry is Native American, although the connection is usually only sentimental and not economic or cultural.
This has been imitated in many of the respective states that still have Native American tribes. The money that this generates has engendered some political scandal.
For example, the Tigua tribe, which fled their ancestral lands in New Mexico during the Pueblo revolt of , and who then settled on land in El Paso County, Texas , has paid  for a low probable return to the tribe because of the Jack Abramoff publicity.
Many of the tribes use professional management for their money. Thus, the Mescalero Apache renovated their Inn of the Mountain Gods to include gambling as well as the previous tourism, lodging, and skiing in the older Inn.
The Navajo nation defeated bids to open casinos in , but by the Shiprock casino was a fait accompli. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the motorcycle, see Indian Chief motorcycle. For the Canadian magazine, see The Tyee. For Tyee, Alaska, see Murder Cove.
For other uses, see Chieftain disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
This work led to a War Office specification for a new tank. The General Staff specification drew on the experience of Centurion tanks in the Korean War as well as that of the Conqueror tank.
The tank was expected to be able to engage the enemy at long range, from defensive positions, and be proof against medium artillery.
To this end, the gun was to have a greater angle of depression than the 8 degrees of Conqueror and would be equipped with better frontal armour.
The tank was expected to achieve a firing rate of 10 rounds per minute in the first minute and six per minute for the following four.
The first few prototypes were provided for troop trials from which identified a number of changes. Improvements to address engine vibration and cooling resulted in a redesign of the rear hull.
This increased the design weight to nearly 50 tons and accordingly the suspension which had been designed for 45 tons was strengthened.
Trackpads had to be fitted to protect roads from damage and the ground clearance increased. The design was accepted in the early s. Britain and Israel had collaborated on the development in its latter stages  with a view to Israel purchasing and domestically producing the vehicle.
Two prototypes were delivered as part of a four-year trial. In , NATO had specified that its forces should use multi-fuel engines. This was further hampered by the Horstmann coil spring suspension , which made it a challenge to drive cross country and provide the crew with a comfortable ride.
Due to the cylinder linings being pressure fitted, coolant leaks within the cylinder block were common, resulting in white smoke billowing from the exhaust.
In the late s, engine design changed with the introduction of Belzona which was used to improve the lining seals.
This meant better performance and an increased speed. However, cross-country performance remained limited.
For security reasons early prototypes had a canvas screen covering the mantlet and a sheet metal box mounted over the sloping glacis plate to disguise the configuration of the vehicle.
The driver lay semi-recumbent in the hull when his hatch was closed down which helped to reduce the profile of the forward glacis plate.
The commander, gunner and loader were situated in the turret. To the left side of the turret was a large searchlight with infra-red capability in an armoured housing.
The Leyland L60 engine is a two-stroke opposed piston design intended for multi-fuel use so that it could run on whatever fuel was available.
Primary problems included cylinder liner failure, fan drive problems and perpetual leaks due to vibration and badly routed pipework. However, as the engine power improved the tank itself became heavier.
The tank was steered by conventional tillers hydraulically actuating onto external brake discs. The discs worked via the epicyclic gearbox providing "regenerative" steering.
In the turret, the loader was on the left and the gunner on the right of the gun with the commander situated behind the gunner. The suspension was of the Horstmann bogie type with large side plates to protect the tracks and provide stand-off protection from hollow charge attack.
The main armament was the mm L11A5 rifled gun. This differed from most contemporary main tank armament as it used projectiles and charges that were loaded separately, as opposed to a single fixed round.
The charges were encased in combustible bags. Other tank guns such as the mm L1 gun on the Conqueror, needed to store the spent shell cartridges or eject them outside.
In the event of a hit penetrating the fighting compartment, the jacket would rupture soaking the charges and preventing a catastrophic propellant explosion.
This contains radios, ammunition and fire control equipment and has further stowage externally. The gun could fire a wide range of ammunition but the most commonly loaded types were high explosive squash head HESH , armour-piercing discarding sabot APDS , or practice round equivalents for both types.
The Chieftain could store up to 64 projectiles though a maximum of 36 APDS, limited by the propellant stowage. The gun was fully stabilised with a fully computerized integrated control system.
The secondary armament consisted of a coaxial L8A1 7. This practice increases the rate of fire but would be hazardous with one-piece ammunition.
Chieftain had an NBC protection system which Centurion lacked. The tank commander had a rotating cupola with nine vision blocks -giving all round view, plus the 7.
The aiming systems were provided for both the gunner and the tank commander; they had 1x or 10x selectable magnification power, increasing to x15 in the Mk5 and beyond, and they were replaceable with IR vision systems for night operations 3x magnification power.
The commander could rotate his cupola to bring his sight onto a target and then engage the mechanism that brought the turret round on to the correct bearing so that the gunner could complete the aiming.
The left side of the turret had a large searchlight with an electrically controlled infra-red filter inside an armoured box, with a relatively long range — up to 1—1.
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