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On the following day, a single US bomber was shot down, as the large escort force was able to prevent Luftwaffe day fighters from disrupting the attack.
It is not possible to describe! It was beyond belief, worse than the blackest nightmare. So many people were horribly burnt and injured.
It became more and more difficult to breathe. It was dark and all of us tried to leave this cellar with inconceivable panic.
Dead and dying people were trampled upon, luggage was left or snatched up out of our hands by rescuers. We saw the burning street, the falling ruins and the terrible firestorm.
My mother covered us with wet blankets and coats she found in a water tub. We saw terrible things: The sirens had started sounding in Dresden at The lead aircraft of the major enemy bomber forces have changed course and are now approaching the city area".
To my left I suddenly see a woman. I can see her to this day and shall never forget it. She carries a bundle in her arms.
It is a baby. She runs, she falls, and the child flies in an arc into the fire. Suddenly, I saw people again, right in front of me.
They scream and gesticulate with their hands, and then—to my utter horror and amazement—I see how one after the other they simply seem to let themselves drop to the ground.
Today I know that these unfortunate people were the victims of lack of oxygen. They fainted and then burnt to cinders.
Insane fear grips me and from then on I repeat one simple sentence to myself continuously: I do not know how many people I fell over. I know only one thing: There were very few public air raid shelters —the largest, underneath the main railway station, was housing 6, refugees.
The idea was that, as one building collapsed or filled with smoke, those using the basement as a shelter could knock the walls down and run into adjoining buildings.
With the city on fire everywhere, those fleeing from one burning cellar simply ran into another, with the result that thousands of bodies were found piled up in houses at the end of city blocks.
A Dresden police report written shortly after the attacks reported that the old town and the inner eastern suburbs had been engulfed in a single fire that had destroyed almost 12, dwellings.
An RAF assessment showed that 23 percent of the industrial buildings, and 56 percent of the non-industrial buildings, not counting residential buildings, had been seriously damaged.
Around 78, dwellings had been completely destroyed; 27, were uninhabitable, and 64, damaged, but readily repairable.
According to official German report Tagesbefehl Order of the Day no. Between , and , refugees  fleeing westwards from advancing Soviet forces were in the city at the time of the bombing.
Exact figures are unknown, but reliable estimates were calculated based on train arrivals, foot traffic, and the extent to which emergency accommodation had to be organised.
The uncertainty introduced by this is thought to amount to a total of no more than A further 1, bodies were discovered during the reconstruction of Dresden between the end of the war and The results were published in and stated that a minimum of 22,  and a maximum of 25, people  were killed.
Development of a German political response to the raid took several turns. Initially, some of the leadership, especially Robert Ley and Joseph Goebbels , wanted to use it as a pretext for abandonment of the Geneva Conventions on the Western Front.
In the end, the only political action the German government took was to exploit it for propaganda purposes. How much guilt does this parasite not bear for all this, which we owe to his indolence and love of his own comforts.
On 16 February, the Propaganda Ministry issued a press release that stated that Dresden had no war industries; it was a city of culture.
On 25 February, a new leaflet with photographs of two burned children was released under the title "Dresden—Massacre of Refugees," stating that , had died.
Since no official estimate had been developed, the numbers were speculative, but newspapers such as the Stockholm Svenska Morgonbladet used phrases such as "privately from Berlin," to explain where they had obtained the figures.
Taylor writes that this propaganda was effective, as it not only influenced attitudes in neutral countries at the time, but also reached the British House of Commons when Richard Stokes , a Labour Party Member of Parliament MP , a long term opponent of area-bombing,  quoted information from the German Press Agency controlled by the Propaganda Ministry.
The destruction of the city provoked unease in intellectual circles in Britain. The unease was made worse by an Associated Press story that the Allies had resorted to terror bombing.
First of all they Dresden and similar towns are the centres to which evacuees are being moved. They are centres of communications through which traffic is moving across to the Russian Front, and from the Western Front to the East, and they are sufficiently close to the Russian Front for the Russians to continue the successful prosecution of their battle.
I think these three reasons probably cover the bombing. One of the journalists asked whether the principal aim of bombing Dresden would be to cause confusion among the refugees or to blast communications carrying military supplies.
Grierson answered that the primary aim was to attack communications to prevent the Germans from moving military supplies, and to stop movement in all directions if possible.
He then added in an offhand remark that the raid also helped destroy "what is left of German morale. There were follow-up newspaper editorials on the issue and a longtime opponent of strategic bombing, Richard Stokes MP , asked questions in the House of Commons on 6 March.
Churchill subsequently distanced himself from the bombing. It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed.
Otherwise we shall come into control of an utterly ruined land The destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing.
I am of the opinion that military objectives must henceforward be more strictly studied in our own interests than that of the enemy.
The Foreign Secretary has spoken to me on this subject, and I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.
But to do so was always repugnant and now that the Germans are beaten anyway we can properly abstain from proceeding with these attacks.
This is a doctrine to which I could never subscribe. Attacks on cities like any other act of war are intolerable unless they are strategically justified.
But they are strategically justified in so far as they tend to shorten the war and preserve the lives of Allied soldiers. To my mind we have absolutely no right to give them up unless it is certain that they will not have this effect.
I do not personally regard the whole of the remaining cities of Germany as worth the bones of one British Grenadier. The feeling, such as there is, over Dresden, could be easily explained by any psychiatrist.
It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses. Actually Dresden was a mass of munitions works, an intact government centre, and a key transportation point to the East.
It is now none of these things. The phrase "worth the bones of one British grenadier" echoed a famous sentence used by Otto von Bismarck: If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies.
In , Dresden entered a twin-town relationship with Coventry. As a centre of military and munitions production, Coventry suffered some of the worst attacks on any British city at the hands of the Luftwaffe during the Coventry Blitzes of and , which killed over 1, civilians and destroyed its cathedral.
The Dresden synagogue , which was burned during Kristallnacht on 9 November , was rebuilt in and opened for worship on 9 November and is called the New Synagogue.
But as one of them, Victor Klemperer , recorded in his diaries: In , after the fall of the Berlin Wall , a group of prominent Dresdeners formed an international appeal known as the "Call from Dresden" to request help in rebuilding the Lutheran Frauenkirche, the destruction of which had over the years become a symbol of the bombing.
One of the gifts they made to the project was an eight-metre high orb and cross made in London by goldsmiths Gant MacDonald, using medieval nails recovered from the ruins of the roof of Coventry Cathedral , and crafted in part by Alan Smith, the son of a pilot who took part in the raid.
British historian Frederick Taylor wrote of the attacks: It was a wonderfully beautiful city and a symbol of baroque humanism and all that was best in Germany.
It also contained all of the worst from Germany during the Nazi period. In that sense it is an absolutely exemplary tragedy for the horrors of 20th century warfare and a symbol of destruction".
Several factors have made the bombing a unique point of contention and debate. The Hague Conventions , addressing the codes of wartime conduct on land and at sea, were adopted before the rise of air power.
Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfare, it was not updated before the outbreak of World War II.
The absence of positive international humanitarian law does not mean that the laws of war did not cover aerial warfare, but there was no general agreement of how to interpret those laws.
The bombing of Dresden has been used by Holocaust deniers and pro-Nazi polemicists—most notably by the British writer David Irving in his book The Destruction of Dresden —in an attempt to establish a moral equivalence between the war crimes committed by the Nazi government and the killing of German civilians by Allied bombing raids.
An inquiry conducted at the behest of U. Marshall , stated the raid was justified by the available intelligence.
As Dresden had been largely untouched during the war due to its location, it was one of the few remaining functional rail and communications centres.
A secondary objective was to disrupt the industrial use of Dresden for munitions manufacture, which American intelligence believed was the case.
The shock to military planners and to the Allied civilian populations of the German counterattack known as the Battle of the Bulge had ended speculation that the war was almost over, and may have contributed to the decision to continue with the aerial bombardment of German cities.
The inquiry concluded that by the presence of active German military units nearby, and the presence of fighters and anti-aircraft within an effective range, Dresden qualified as "defended".
The German national air-defence system could be used to argue—as the tribunal did—that no German city was "undefended".
It was argued that the intent of area bombing was to disrupt communications and destroy industrial production. The American inquiry established that the Soviets, pursuant to allied agreements for the United States and the United Kingdom to provide air support for the Soviet offensive toward Berlin, had requested area bombing of Dresden to prevent a counterattack through Dresden, or the use of Dresden as a regrouping point after a strategic retreat.
A report by the U. Air Force Historical Division USAFHD analyzed the circumstances of the raid and concluded that it was militarily necessary and justified, based on the following points: The first point regarding the legitimacy of the raid depends on two claims: The first was on 2 March , by Bs, which dropped tons of high-explosive bombs and tons of incendiaries.
The second was on 17 April, when Bs dropped 1, tons of high-explosive bombs and tons of incendiaries. As far as Dresden being a militarily significant industrial centre, an official guide described the German city as " The second of the five points addresses the prohibition in the Hague Conventions , of "attack or bombardment" of "undefended" towns.
The third and fourth points say that the size of the Dresden raid—in terms of numbers, types of bombs and the means of delivery—were commensurate with the military objective and similar to other Allied bombings.
On 23 February , the Allies bombed Pforzheim and caused an estimated 20, civilian fatalities; the most devastating raid on any city was on Tokyo on 9—10 March the Meetinghouse raid  caused over , civilian casualties.
The tonnage and types of bombs listed in the service records of the Dresden raid were comparable to or less than throw weights of bombs dropped in other air attacks carried out in In the case of Dresden, as in many other similar attacks, the hour break in between the RAF raids was a deliberate ploy to attack the fire fighters, medical teams, and military units.
The fifth point is that the firebombing achieved the intended effect of disabling the industry in Dresden. The damage to other infrastructure and communications was immense, which would have severely limited the potential use of Dresden to stop the Soviet advance.
The report concludes with:. The specific forces and means employed in the Dresden bombings were in keeping with the forces and means employed by the Allies in other aerial attacks on comparable targets in Germany.
The Dresden bombings achieved the strategic objectives that underlay the attack and were of mutual importance to the Allies and the Russians.
The journalist Alexander McKee cast doubt on the meaningfulness of the list of targets mentioned in the USAF report, pointing out that the military barracks listed as a target were a long way out of the city and were not in fact targeted during the raid.
What they were looking for was a big built up area which they could burn, and that Dresden possessed in full measure. The industrial plants of Dresden played no significant role in German industry at this stage in the war".
Traditional British chivalry and the use of minimum force in war was to become a mockery and the outrages perpetrated by the bombers will be remembered a thousand years hence".
The Albertstadt , in the north of Dresden, had remarkable military facilities that the bombings failed to hit.
It first tried to do so in the Fourth Geneva Convention of , but the UK and the US would not agree, since to do so would have been an admission of guilt for their systematic "area bombing" of German and Japanese civilians.
It was overdone, it was excessive and is to be regretted enormously," but, "A war crime is a very specific thing which international lawyers argue about all the time and I would not be prepared to commit myself nor do I see why I should.
Grayling has described British area bombardment as an "immoral act" and "moral crime" because "destroying everything Though no one involved in the bombing of Dresden was ever charged with a war crime, some hold the opinion that the bombing was one.
Gregory Stanton , lawyer and president of Genocide Watch:. The Nazi Holocaust was among the most evil genocides in history.
We are all capable of evil and must be restrained by law from committing it. Proponents of this position argue that the devastation from firebombing was greater than anything that could be justified by military necessity alone, and this establishes a prima facie case.
The Allies were aware of the effects of firebombing, as British cities had been subject to them during the Blitz. British historian Antony Beevor wrote that Dresden was considered relatively safe, having been spared previous RAF night attacks, and that at the time of the raids there were up to , refugees in the area seeking sanctuary from the advancing Red Army from the Eastern Front.
According to him, , civilians died during the allied bombing of German cities, including 72, children.
Some 45, people died on one night during the firestorms that engulfed Hamburg in July Far-right politicians in Germany have sparked a great deal of controversy by promoting the term " Bombenholocaust " "holocaust by bomb" to describe the raids.
Prosecutors said that it was illegal to call the bombing a holocaust. Phrases like "Bomber-Harris, do it again! Similar rallies take place every year.
A Duty-Dance with Death used some elements from his experiences as a prisoner of war at Dresden during the bombing. Discover Dresden by night, and its cultural heart, Dresden-Neustadt, home of a former micronation.
Your guide will show you to several different pubs…. See the sights of Dresden such as the…. Follow on the trail of Kurt Vonnegut, the American writer, who survived the bombing of Dresden and recorded his experiences in his famous novel….
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Click here for a full list. This tour is a great way to make you think about Dresden in a totally different way than the picturesque old city does.
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